Prosedur Bunkering

Sebagai awak kapal, khususnya orang mesin harus memahami system dari bunkering procedure, aku orang deck tapi tak ada salahnya juga aku bahas tentang bunkering procedure untuk memahami aktual dan rincian praktis dari proses pengisian bahan bakar minyak yang akan di muat ke kapal kita wajib mengikuti tahapan tahapan yang baik

Pengisian minyak bisa di lakukan di pelabuhan minyak, seperti pertamina, atau bunker barge/tanker atau dengan mobil truck. kalau di singapore hampir kebanyakan kapal kapal menerima minyak via bunker barge dan untuk kapal kapal kecil seperti tug boat dan sebagainya via kura kura ninja ( ini hanya julukan yg di buat sama anak anak pelaut indonesia) dia bunker barge juga cuma kecil dan terbuat dari kayu dan cukup besar kapal kayunya. biasa di sebut ST .  singapore adalah salah satu negara yang mempunyai quality control management yang baik, salah satu bunker documentation yg biasa akan kita terima adalah

  • pre delivery safety checkist
  • bunker requisition form
  • non cargo tank declaration/inspection form
  • tank gauging/calculation
  • bunker delivery note

Semua jenis kapal apanpun pasti  membutuhan bahan bakar minyak,(FO,  Lube oil dll )dan oleh karena itu adalah sangat penting bagi setiap awak kapal untuk memahami proses pengisian bahan bakar yg sebenarnya


Pra-persiapan pengisian bahan bakar.

Aspek yang paling penting dari operasi pengisian bahan bakar adalah “daftar”, yang merupakan bagian dari safety management system (SMS) dan ISM, untuk menghilangkan kemungkinan kesalahan dan kelalaian human error dan lainnya. pra-pengisian bahan bakar harus diikuti oleh Chief Engineer (C / E), sesuai check list pre bunkering procedure. Chief engineer adalah orang yang bertanggung jawab dalam pelaksanaan pengoperasian pengisian bahan bakar. Sebelum pengisian bahan bakar, biasanya mualim 3 atau 4 akan, mengambil “Soundings” dari tangki ke tangki bahan bakar dan di hitung volume bahan bakar minyak yg tersedia di setiap tangki bahan bakar minyak kapal. Kemudian Bunker-direncana dibuat perencanaan yg mau di distribusikan dari jumlah total minyak yg akan di terima untuk setiap tangki.

System permintaan minyak

Sebelum kita meng order minyak atau istilahnya requesting for bunkering fuel oil. Chief engineer harus berkonsultasi ke Capt. Agar dapat mengetahui jumlah minyak, berapa banyak minyak yg di butuhkan untuk pelayaran berikutnya. Dgn menetahui jarak tempu pelayaran dan mengetahui konsumsi bahan bakar per hari maka kita dapat menghitung jumlah bahan bakar tsb. Yg dapat di terima oleh tanki tangki yg tersedia di atas kapal jadi perlu diproses dan di evaluasi sebelum mengirim permintaan ke kantor

stelah menerima bunker minyak. Engineer harus mengambil sample minyak untuk di kirim ke kantor pusat untuk di analisa di laboratorium minyak, untuk mengetahui komposisi dan kondisi dari minyak tsb.

Pre-Bunker Checklist:

Pre-Bunkering Procedure:

1. State of adjacent waters noticed

2. Vessel properly secured to dock

3. Check suppliers product corresponds to ordered product

4. Agree quantity to be supplied

5. Check valves open

6. Day tanks full and supply valves closed

7. Warning signs in position e.g. No Smoking

8. SOPEP plan available

9. Clean up material in place

10. Oil Boom in place

11. Foam fire extinguisher placed at bunker station

12. Alfa Laval and transfer pumps off

13. Fuel tank supply valves open

14. Agree stop/start signals between vessel and barge/truck

15. Bravo flag flying/red light showing

16. Agree pumping/transfer rate

17. Agree emergency shut down procedure

18. Specification sheet received

19. Check hose and couplings are secure and in good order

20. Fuel nozzle and hose secured to vessel

21. Check barge/truck meters Reading:

22. Check on board meters Reading:

23. Bunker Valve open

24. Unused manifold connections blanked off

25. Master informed

26. Signal pumping to commence

Daftar checklist di atas harus di isi dgn benar oleh masinis kapal dan bunker barge (masinis) sebelum bunker fuel di mulai

Perlengkapan alat alat SOPEP

Untuk mencegah terjadinya tumpahan minyak pada bunker manifold, harus di siapkan peralatan sesuai SOPEP, yg di simpan dan siap sedia di gunakan jika keadaan darurat (oil spill)

SOPEP- Shipboard Oil Pollution Emergency Plan.

The SOPEP Locker must have minimum of the below specified items:

1. absorbent roll

2. absorbent pads

3. absorbent granules

4. absorbent materials

5. brooms

6. shovels

7. mops

8. scoops

9. empty receptacles (200 ltrs capacity)

10. portable air driven pumps

11. oil boom

12. oil spill dispersants.

Selama pengisian bahan bakar Procedure harus di ikuti dan di jalankan dgn baik. Perwira dan masinis kapal harus mengikuti checklist yg ada di atas kapal.

During Bunkering checklist:

1. Witness taking and sealing of 2 representative product samples

2. Monitor fuel connections for leaks fuel flow and control tank levels

3. Change over of tanks whenever necessary.

4. Checking the rate at which bunkers are received.

5. Checking the tightness/slackness of mooring ropes.

6. Checking trim/list of the bunker barge & the ship.

7. Continuous monitoring/look outs for the vessel’s position(when at anchor).

During bunkering, the above checklist must be filled up and continuous monitoring of the above secified items are required till the bunkering operation is complete.

setelah bunker selesai, slang minyak yg di pakai harus di blow dengan angin agarsemua minyak yg tersisa bisa keluar dari dalam slang minyak, tujuannya untuk mencega tumpahan minyak saat manifold di buka

After Bunker Checklist:

1. Bunker Valve closed

2. Disconnect hose (drain before disconnecting)

3. Check barge/truck meter Reading:

4. Check ships meter Reading:

5. Sign Bunker Delivery Receipt BDR No.:(Bunker Delivery Report/Note).

6. Retain BDR with product sample

7. SOPEP plan returned to bridge

8. Clean up gear stowed / Oil boom returned

9. Bravo Flag/Red light stowed/switched off

10. Remove and pack away warning/safety signs

11. Foam fire extinguisher placed back in correct location

12. Complete Oil Record Book

13. Master informed of completion

14. Confirm in Oil Record Book Bunkering checklist completed

Quantity Calculation & Temperature-Density Correction:

After bunkering of various fuel oil tanks, the quantity in each bunkered tank must be calculated to cross-check whether the received quantity of oil matches the requisition. For calculating the quantity, “sounding” of the tanks which are “bunkered” must be taken. The “Density” of the fuel oil supplied vary from place to place. It also varies with the temperature. As a thumb rule, the density of fuel oil decreases with increase in temperature. So, when the oil is supplied at a higher temperature, then the volume of oil supplied is less than what is supplied at lesser temperature.

Oil Temperature ———–Density ————Volume Of Oil Supplied

Increases———————-  Decreases————-Lesser

Decreases———————- Increases ————-More

Also the formula which is generally used for temperature-density correction is as follows:

MT= {(t1-15)*0.00065}*volume of oil in m3. where MT stands for metric tonnes. t1 stands for temperature of oil in bunker tanks in degree celcius, 0.00065 is the correction factor,

volume of oil in m^3, is obtained from the sounding table.

General Safeties During Bunkering:

SOPEP locker,

Emergency shut-down arrangements,

Bunker line over-flow arrangements to overflow tank with audible & visual alarm,

Relief valve in the bunker line,

Containment trays.

Consistent & Continuous look outs.

About Raly Siregar

Founder Group Facebook "Sharing Pelaut Indonesia" http://www.facebook.com/group.php?gid=193623895141
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